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HEALTH LIVING BY MYHOSPITALL

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How Deadly is Lung Cancer?


how deadly is lung cancer

Overview

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you inhale and release carbon dioxide when you exhale.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

People who smoke have the greatest risk of lung cancer, though lung cancer can also occur in people who have never smoked. The risk of lung cancer increases with the length of time and number of cigarettes you've smoked. If you quit smoking, even after smoking for many years, you can significantly reduce your chances of developing lung cancer.

In this article we will look at the following:

 lung cancer symptoms

lung cancer causes

 lung cancer treatment

 lung cancer diagnosis

 lung cancer types

lung cancer stages

Symptoms

Lung cancer typically doesn't cause signs and symptoms in its earliest stages. Signs and symptoms of lung cancer typically occur when the disease is advanced.

Signs and symptoms of lung cancer may include:

  • A new cough that doesn't go away
  • Coughing up blood, even a small amount
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Hoarseness
  •  Losing weight without trying
  •   Bone pain
  • Headache

Causes

Smoking causes the majority of lung cancers — both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke. But lung cancer also occurs in people who never smoked and in those who never had prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke. In these cases, there may be no clear cause of lung cancer.

How smoking causes lung cancer

Doctors believe smoking causes lung cancer by damaging the cells that line the lungs. When you inhale cigarette smoke, which is full of cancer-causing substances (carcinogens), changes in the lung tissue begin almost immediately.

At first your body may be able to repair this damage. But with each repeated exposure, normal cells that line your lungs are increasingly damaged. Over time, the damage causes cells to act abnormally and eventually cancer may develop.

Types of lung cancer

Doctors divide lung cancer into two major types based on the appearance of lung cancer cells under the microscope. Your doctor makes treatment decisions based on which major type of lung cancer you have.

The two general types of lung cancer include:

1.     Small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.

2.     Non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is an umbrella term for several types of lung cancers. Non-small cell lung cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma.

Risk factors

A number of factors may increase your risk of lung cancer. Some risk factors can be controlled, for instance, by quitting smoking. And other factors can't be controlled, such as your family history.

Risk factors for lung cancer include:

Smoking. Your risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes you smoke each day and the number of years you have smoked. Quitting at any age can significantly lower your risk of developing lung cancer.

Exposure to secondhand smoke. Even if you don't smoke, your risk of lung cancer increases if you're exposed to secondhand smoke.

Previous radiation therapy. If you've undergone radiation therapy to the chest for another type of cancer, you may have an increased risk of developing lung cancer.

Exposure to radon gas. Radon is produced by the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock and water that eventually becomes part of the air you breathe. Unsafe levels of radon can accumulate in any building, including homes.

Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Workplace exposure to asbestos and other substances known to cause cancer — such as arsenic, chromium and nickel — can increase your risk of developing lung cancer, especially if you're a smoker.

Family history of lung cancer. People with a parent, sibling or child with lung cancer have an increased risk of the disease.

Complications of lung cancer

Lung cancer can cause complications, such as:

Shortness of breath. People with lung cancer can experience shortness of breath if cancer grows to block the major airways. Lung cancer can also cause fluid to accumulate around the lungs, making it harder for the affected lung to expand fully when you inhale.

Coughing up blood. Lung cancer can cause bleeding in the airway, which can cause you to cough up blood (hemoptysis). Sometimes bleeding can become severe. Treatments are available to control bleeding.

Pain. Advanced lung cancer that spreads to the lining of a lung or to another area of the body, such as a bone, can cause pain. Tell your doctor if you experience pain, as many treatments are available to control pain.

Fluid in the chest (pleural effusion). Lung cancer can cause fluid to accumulate in the space that surrounds the affected lung in the chest cavity (pleural space).

Fluid accumulating in the chest can cause shortness of breath. Treatments are available to drain the fluid from your chest and reduce the risk that pleural effusion will occur again.

Cancer that spreads to other parts of the body (metastasis). Lung cancer often spreads (metastasizes) to other parts of the body, such as the brain and the bones.

Cancer that spreads can cause pain, nausea, headaches, or other signs and symptoms depending on what organ is affected. Once lung cancer has spread beyond the lungs, it's generally not curable. Treatments are available to decrease signs and symptoms and to help you live longer.

Prevention

There's no sure way to prevent lung cancer, but you can reduce your risk if you:

Don't smoke. If you've never smoked, don't start. Talk to your children about not smoking so that they can understand how to avoid this major risk factor for lung cancer. Begin conversations about the dangers of smoking with your children early so that they know how to react to peer pressure.

Stop smoking. Stop smoking now. Quitting reduces your risk of lung cancer, even if you've smoked for years. Talk to your doctor about strategies and stop-smoking aids that can help you quit. Options include nicotine replacement products, medications and support groups.

Avoid secondhand smoke. If you live or work with a smoker, urge him or her to quit. At the very least, ask him or her to smoke outside. Avoid areas where people smoke, such as bars and restaurants, and seek out smoke-free options.

Test your home for radon. Have the radon levels in your home checked, especially if you live in an area where radon is known to be a problem. High radon levels can be remedied to make your home safer. For information on radon testing, contact your local department of public health or a local chapter of the American Lung Association.

Avoid carcinogens at work. Take precautions to protect yourself from exposure to toxic chemicals at work. Follow your employer's precautions. For instance, if you're given a face mask for protection, always wear it. Ask your doctor what more you can do to protect yourself at work. Your risk of lung damage from workplace carcinogens increases if you smoke.

Eat a diet full of fruits and vegetables. Choose a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables. Food sources of vitamins and nutrients are best. Avoid taking large doses of vitamins in pill form, as they may be harmful. For instance, researchers hoping to reduce the risk of lung cancer in heavy smokers gave them beta carotene supplements. Results showed the supplements actually increased the risk of cancer in smokers.

Exercise most days of the week. If you don't exercise regularly, start out slowly. Try to exercise most days of the week.

Diagnosis

Testing healthy people for lung cancer

People with an increased risk of lung cancer may consider annual lung cancer screening using low-dose CT scans. Lung cancer screening is generally offered to people 55 and older who smoked heavily for many years or who have quit in the past 15 years.

Discuss your lung cancer risk with your doctor. Together you can decide whether lung cancer screening is right for you.

Tests to diagnose lung cancer

If there's reason to think that you may have lung cancer, your doctor can order a number of tests to look for cancerous cells and to rule out other conditions.

Tests may include:

Imaging tests. An X-ray image of your lungs may reveal an abnormal mass or nodule. A CT scan can reveal small lesions in your lungs that might not be detected on an X-ray.

Sputum cytology. If you have a cough and are producing sputum, looking at the sputum under the microscope can sometimes reveal the presence of lung cancer cells.

Tissue sample (biopsy). A sample of abnormal cells may be removed in a procedure called a biopsy.

Your doctor can perform a biopsy in a number of ways, including bronchoscopy, in which your doctor examines abnormal areas of your lungs using a lighted tube that's passed down your throat and into your lungs.

Mediastinoscopy, in which an incision is made at the base of your neck and surgical tools are inserted behind your breastbone to take tissue samples from lymph nodes is also an option.

Another option is needle biopsy, in which your doctor uses X-ray or CT images to guide a needle through your chest wall and into the lung tissue to collect suspicious cells.

A biopsy sample may also be taken from lymph nodes or other areas where cancer has spread, such as your liver.

Careful analysis of your cancer cells in a lab will reveal what type of lung cancer you have. Results of sophisticated testing can tell your doctor the specific characteristics of your cells that can help determine your prognosis and guide your treatment.

Tests to determine the extent of the cancer

Once your lung cancer has been diagnosed, your doctor will work to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer. Your cancer's stage helps you and your doctor decide what treatment is most appropriate.

Staging tests may include imaging procedures that allow your doctor to look for evidence that cancer has spread beyond your lungs. These tests include CT, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET) and bone scans. Not every test is appropriate for every person, so talk with your doctor about which procedures are right for you.

The stages of lung cancer are indicated by Roman numerals that range from 0 to IV, with the lowest stages indicating cancer that is limited to the lung. By stage IV, the cancer is considered advanced and has spread to other areas of the body.

Treatment of lung cancer

You and your doctor choose a cancer treatment plan based on a number of factors, such as your overall health, the type and stage of your cancer, and your preferences.

In some cases, you may choose not to undergo treatment. For instance, you may feel that the side effects of treatment will outweigh the potential benefits. When that's the case, your doctor may suggest comfort care to treat only the symptoms the cancer is causing, such as pain or shortness of breath.

Surgery

 Lung cancer surgeryOpen pop-up dialog box

Lung cancer surgery

During surgery, your surgeon works to remove the lung cancer and a margin of healthy tissue. Procedures to remove lung cancer include:

Wedge resection to remove a small section of lung that contains the tumor along with a margin of healthy tissue

Segmental resection to remove a larger portion of lung, but not an entire lobe

Lobectomy to remove the entire lobe of one lung

Pneumonectomy to remove an entire lung

If you undergo surgery, your surgeon may also remove lymph nodes from your chest in order to check them for signs of cancer.

Surgery may be an option if your cancer is confined to the lungs. If you have a larger lung cancer, your doctor may recommend chemotherapy or radiation therapy before surgery in order to shrink the cancer. If there's a risk that cancer cells were left behind after surgery or that your cancer may recur, your doctor may recommend chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons to kill cancer cells. During radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a machine moves around you, directing radiation to precise points on your body.

For people with locally advanced lung cancer, radiation may be used before surgery or after surgery. It's often combined with chemotherapy treatments. If surgery isn't an option, combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be your primary treatment.

For advanced lung cancers and those that have spread to other areas of the body, radiation therapy may help relieve symptoms, such as pain.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. One or more chemotherapy drugs may be given through a vein in your arm (intravenously) or taken orally. A combination of drugs usually is given in a series of treatments over a period of weeks or months, with breaks in between so that you can recover.

Chemotherapy is often used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may remain. It can be used alone or combined with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy may also be used before surgery to shrink cancers and make them easier to remove.

In people with advanced lung cancer, chemotherapy can be used to relieve pain and other symptoms.

Stereotactic body radiotherapy

Stereotactic body radiotherapy, also known as radiosurgery, is an intense radiation treatment that aims many beams of radiation from many angles at the cancer. Stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment is typically completed in one or a few treatments.

Stereotactic body radiotherapy may be an option for people with small lung cancers who can't undergo surgery. It may also be used to treat lung cancer that spreads to other parts of the body, including the brain.

Targeted drug therapy

Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die.

Many targeted therapy drugs are used to treat lung cancer, though most are reserved for people with advanced or recurrent cancer.

Some targeted therapies only work in people whose cancer cells have certain genetic mutations. Your cancer cells may be tested in a laboratory to see if these drugs might help you.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. Your body's disease-fighting immune system may not attack your cancer because the cancer cells produce proteins that help them hide from the immune system cells. Immunotherapy works by interfering with that process.

Immunotherapy treatments are generally reserved for people with locally advanced lung cancers and cancers that have spread to other parts of the body.

Palliative care

People with lung cancer often experience signs and symptoms of the cancer, as well as side effects of treatment. Supportive care, also known as palliative care, is a specialty area of medicine that involves working with a doctor to minimize your signs and symptoms.

Your doctor may recommend that you meet with a palliative care team soon after your diagnosis to ensure that you're comfortable during and after your cancer treatment.

In one study, people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer who began receiving supportive care soon after their diagnosis lived longer than those who continued with treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation. Those receiving supportive care reported improved mood and quality of life. They survived, on average, almost three months longer than did those receiving standard care.


What to as about when you are diagnosed with lung cancer

What type of lung cancer do I have?

May I see the chest X-ray or CT scan that shows my cancer?

What is causing my symptoms?

What is the stage of my lung cancer?

Will I need more tests?

Should my lung cancer cells be tested for gene mutations that may determine my treatment options?

Has my cancer spread to other parts of my body?

What are my treatment options?

Will any of these treatment options cure my cancer?

What are the potential side effects of each treatment?

Is there one treatment that you think is best for me?

Is there a benefit if I quit smoking now?

What advice would you give a friend or family member in my situation?

What if I don't want treatment?

Are there ways to relieve the signs and symptoms I'm experiencing?

Can I enroll in a clinical trial?

Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?

Are there brochures or other material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

 


Galactorrhea


Overview

Galactorrhea (guh-lack-toe-REE-uh) is a milky nipple discharge unrelated to the normal milk production of breast-feeding. Galactorrhea itself isn't a disease, but it could be a sign of an underlying problem. It usually occurs in women, even those who have never had children or after menopause. But galactorrhea can happen in men and even in infants.

Excessive breast stimulation, medication side effects or disorders of the pituitary gland all may contribute to galactorrhea. Often, galactorrhea results from increased levels of prolactin, the hormone that stimulates milk production.

Sometimes, the cause of galactorrhea can't be determined. The condition may resolve on its own.


Symptoms

Signs and symptoms associated with galactorrhea include:


  1. Persistent or intermittent milky nipple discharge
  2. Nipple discharge involving multiple milk ducts
  3. Spontaneously leaked or manually expressed nipple discharge
  4. One or both breasts affected
  5. Absent or irregular menstrual periods
  6. Headaches or vision problems

When to see a doctor

If you have a persistent, spontaneous milky nipple discharge from one or both of your breasts and you're not pregnant or breast-feeding, make an appointment to see your doctor.

If breast stimulation — such as excessive nipple manipulation during sexual activity — triggers nipple discharge from multiple ducts, you have little cause for worry. The discharge probably doesn't signal anything abnormal, and this discharge often resolves on its own. If you have persistent discharge that doesn't go away, make an appointment with your doctor to get it checked out.

Nonmilky nipple discharge — particularly bloody, yellow or clear spontaneous discharge that comes from one duct or is associated with a lump you can feel — requires prompt medical attention, as it may be a sign of an underlying breast cancer.


Causes


galactorrhea

Pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Pituitary gland and hypothalamus Open pop-up dialog box
Galactorrhea often results from having too much prolactin — the hormone responsible for milk production when you have a baby. Prolactin is produced by your pituitary gland, a small bean-shaped gland at the base of your brain that secretes and regulates several hormones.


Possible causes of galactorrhea include:



  1. Medications, such as certain sedatives, antidepressants, antipsychotics and high blood pressure drugs
  2. Opioid use
  3. Herbal supplements, such as fennel, anise or fenugreek seed
  4. Birth control pills
  5. A noncancerous pituitary tumor (prolactinoma) or other disorder of the pituitary gland
  6. Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)
  7. Chronic kidney disease
  8. Excessive breast stimulation, which may be associated with sexual activity, frequent breast self-exams with nipple manipulation or prolonged clothing friction
  9. Nerve damage to the chest wall from chest surgery, burns or other chest injuries
  10. Spinal cord surgery, injury or tumors
  11. Stress

Idiopathic galactorrhea

Sometimes doctors can't find a cause for galactorrhea. This is called idiopathic galactorrhea, and it may just mean that your breast tissue is particularly sensitive to the milk-producing hormone prolactin in your blood. If you have increased sensitivity to prolactin, even normal prolactin levels can lead to galactorrhea.


Galactorrhea in men

In males, galactorrhea may be associated with testosterone deficiency (male hypogonadism) and usually occurs with breast enlargement or tenderness (gynecomastia). Erectile dysfunction and a lack of sexual desire also are associated with testosterone deficiency.

Galactorrhea in newborns
Galactorrhea sometimes occurs in newborns. High maternal estrogen levels cross the placenta into the baby's blood. This can cause enlargement of the baby's breast tissue, which may be associated with a milky nipple discharge. This milky discharge is temporary and resolves on its own. If the discharge is persistent, the newborn should be evaluated by a doctor.


Diagnosis

Finding the underlying cause of galactorrhea can be a complex task because there are so many possibilities.

Testing may involve:


  • A physical exam, during which your doctor may try to express some of the fluid from your nipple by gently examining the area around your nipple. Your doctor may also check for breast lumps or other suspicious areas of thickened breast tissue.
  • Analysis of fluid discharged from the nipple, to see if fat droplets are present in the fluid, which can help confirm the diagnosis of galactorrhea.
  • A blood test, to check the level of prolactin in your system. If your prolactin level is elevated, your doctor will most likely check your thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, too.
  • A pregnancy test, to exclude pregnancy as a possible cause of nipple discharge.
  • Mammography, ultrasound or both, to obtain images of your breast tissue if your doctor finds a breast lump or observes other suspicious breast or nipple changes during your physical exam.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, to check for a tumor or other abnormality of your pituitary gland if your blood test reveals an elevated prolactin level.
If your doctor suspects that a medicine you're taking might be the cause of galactorrhea, he or she might instruct you to stop taking the medicine for a short time to assess this possible cause.


Treatment

When needed, galactorrhea treatment focuses on resolving the underlying cause.

Sometimes doctors can't determine an exact cause of galactorrhea. Your doctor might recommend treatment anyway if you have bothersome or persistent nipple discharge. A medication that blocks the effects of prolactin or lowers your body's prolactin level could help eliminate galactorrhea.

Underlying cause             Possible treatment

Medication use :              Stop taking medication, change dose or switch to another medication. Make                                           medication changes only if your doctor says it's OK to do so.


Underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism)  :        Take a medication, such as levothyroxine            (Levothroid, Synthroid, others), to counter insufficient hormone production by your thyroid gland (thyroid replacement therapy).

Pituitary tumor (prolactinoma):       Use a medication to shrink the tumor or have surgery to remove it.

Unknown cause  :   Try a medication, such as bromocriptine (Cycloset) or cabergoline, to lower your prolactin level and minimize or stop milky nipple discharge. Side effects of these medications commonly include nausea, dizziness and headaches.Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic


Lifestyle and home remedies

Often, milky discharge associated with idiopathic galactorrhea goes away on its own, particularly if you can avoid breast stimulation or medications that are known to cause nipple discharge.

To lessen breast stimulation:



  1. Try not to overdo it when touching your nipples during sexual activity

  • Avoid squeezing, pinching or otherwise manipulating your nipples
  • Wear clothing that minimizes friction between the fabric and your nipple


What you can do

To prepare for your appointment:

Take note of all your symptoms, even if they seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
Review key personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes.
Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements that you take.
Write down questions to ask, noting which are most important to you to have answered.


For galactorrhea, possible questions to ask your doctor include:


  • What's likely causing my symptoms?
  • Are there any other possible causes?
  • What kind of tests might I need?
  • What treatment approach do you recommend for me?
  • Is there a generic equivalent for the medicine you're prescribing me?
  • Are there any at-home remedies I might try?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask you questions, such as:


  • What color is your nipple discharge?
  • Does nipple discharge occur in one or both breasts?
  • Do you have other breast signs or symptoms, such as a lump or area of thickening?
  • Do you have breast pain?
  • How often do you perform breast self-exams?
  • Have you noticed any breast changes?
  • Are you pregnant or breast-feeding?
  • Do you still have regular menstrual periods?
  • Are you having trouble getting pregnant?
  • What medications do you take?
  • Do you have headaches or vision problems?

What you can do in the meantime

Until your appointment, follow these tips to deal with unwanted nipple discharge:

Avoid breast stimulation to reduce or stop nipple discharge. For instance, avoid stimulating the nipples during sexual activity. Don't wear clothing that causes a lot of friction on your nipples.
Use breast pads to absorb nipple discharge and prevent it from seeping through your clothing.

What is ketoconazole shampoo? Treatment of fungal infection in the head.

Ketoconazole Shampoo: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects
Ketoconazole shampoos treat fungal infections that occur on or around the scalp. In some cases, a healthcare professional may recommend using ketoconazole for other off-label purposes. Treatment of dandruff in most cases.
In this article, we discuss what ketoconazole shampoo is, who can use it, and its potential side effects. and the following :ketoconazole shampoo hair loss

What Is ketoconazole shampoo
Ketoconazole shampoo is a red-orange liquid that a person can use to treat fungal infections on the scalp. It contains ketoconazole, which is a synthetic antifungal agent.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ketoconazole in the form of a 2% solution to treat certain conditions, such as dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and tinea versicolor, which is a noncontagious fungal infection of the skin.
It is available in both over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription strengths.
A person should talk to their doctor if they suspect that they have a fungal infection. A doctor can provide more advice on effective treatments for their condition. ketoconazole shampoo side effects

How to use it
A person should follow all the instructions on the label or those that the doctor gives them.
In most cases, the person will need to work up a lather with the shampoo and apply it directly to the hair, ensuring that it reaches the scalp. They should leave the shampoo on their scalp for about 5 minutes before rinsing it off thoroughly.
People aged 12 years old and over should apply the shampoo to the scalp every 3–4 days for up to 8 weeks. After that, the product is only necessary if the person needs to control dandruff.

Who can use it?

Anyone who is allergic to the active ingredient, ketoconazole, should not use the shampoo.
According to 2019 research, ketoconazole is safe to use topically, and people should be able to use ketoconazole shampoo for its intended purpose safely. However, the researchers note that in some cases, contact dermatitis may occur.
People who experience an allergic reaction when they use ketoconazole should discontinue its use. how to use ketoconazole shampoo,ketoconazole shampoo dosage
If the reaction is severe, they should seek immediate medical attention.

Pregnancy or breastfeeding

It is safe to use ketoconazole shampoo when breastfeeding. According to a 2018 article, the use of ketoconazole shampoo does not pose a risk to the infant. However, breastfeeding women should avoid applying it to the breasts or the nipples due to the chance of the infant ingesting it.
There does not appear to be much research on the use of ketoconazole shampoo during pregnancy. According to the FDA, a person should not use ketoconazole during pregnancy unless the benefit outweighs any potential risks to the fetus.
However, more recent 2017 research suggests that ketoconazole is likely safe but that if a pregnant woman uses it, she should only do so on limited areas for short periods.
There are not enough studies to indicate whether the ingredients could be harmful to the developing baby.
Children under the age of 2 years should also avoid using the shampoo unless a doctor recommends it. The safety of ketoconazole shampoo on children remains unclearketoconazole shampoo on face,ketoconazole shampoo reviews

Side effects 

Ketoconazole shampoo generally has limited side effects.
According to the FDA, some reported side effects include:
  • odd color and feel of the hair
  • itching
  • burning sensation
  • hives
  • hypersensitivity
  • dry skin
  • alopecia
  • swelling
  • rash
  • irritated skin
If a person experiences a severe allergic reaction, which is called anaphylaxis, they should seek emergency medical help.
The symptoms of anaphylaxis include:
  • wheezing
  • passing out
  • tight chest
  • hoarse voice
  • hives
  • diarrhea
  • difficulty swallowing
  • a feeling of impending doom

Interaction with other medications

A person should talk to their doctor about any medications that they are taking. A doctor can advise whether certain medications will interfere with, or react to, ketoconazole.
If a reaction does occur, a person should talk to their doctor as soon as possible. It is possible that an alternative shampoo or medication may work without interactions.

Ingestion 

If a person swallows ketoconazole shampoo, they should seek emergency medical treatment as soon as possible at any nearest health facility.

When to see a doctor 

A person should talk to their doctor if they have tried using an OTC ketoconazole shampoo and still have symptoms of the condition that they are trying to treat.
A person should also see a doctor if they experience any of the following symptoms on using the shampoo:
  • rash
  • shortness of breath
  • angioedema, which is a swelling that occurs under the skin
  • skin reactions

Summary

Ketoconazole shampoo comes in both prescription and OTC strengths.
A person may be able to use ketoconazole shampoo to help with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, as well as fungal infections, including tinea versicolor.
A person should discontinue the use of ketoconazole shampoo if they have an allergic reaction to it. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should talk to their doctor before using the shampoo.

What are the different types of abortion?

There are a number of types of abortion, and options depend on the duration of the pregnancy.
An abortion is a medical means of ending a pregnancy.
Worldwide, around half of all reported unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Abortion is legal throughout the majority of the United States and in many other countries.
In this article, we describe the different types of abortion, when and where they are available, and what they involve. We also look into advantages and disadvantages, recovery, and potential risks.

When can a woman have an abortion?


A woman thinking about types of abortion.Share on Pinterest
Women usually get abortions toward the end of the first trimester.
Where abortion is legal in the U.S., doctors usually perform them in the first trimester or the early part of the second trimester.
The first trimester lasts from conception to week 12 of pregnancy. The second trimester is from week 13 to week 28. Some states allow abortion in the latter part of the second trimester.
In 2015, two-thirds (65.4%) of reported abortions in the country took place when the pregnancy had lasted fewer than 8 weeks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
In the same year, almost all of the reported abortions (91.1%) took place when the pregnancy had lasted fewer than 13 weeks.
In the first trimester, options for abortion commonly include:
  • medical abortion
  • vacuum aspiration
A woman can usually access medical abortion until about 10 weeks after her last period. It involves taking two types of medication.
Surgical options, such as vacuum aspiration and dilation and evacuation, are more common after 10 weeks.
In the second trimester, a woman may undergo:
  • dilation and evacuation
  • labor induction abortion
Abortion is rare during the third trimester, but a doctor may perform it after 29 weeks of pregnancy if a woman’s life is in danger. They may use the same methods that are used during the second trimester.

Medical abortion

A medical abortion requires a woman to take pills at separate times.

How it works


Woman taking a pill with a glass of water. Share on Pinterest
A medical abortion involves taking two medications that stop the pregnancy from developing.
This type of abortion involves taking two medications, mifepristone and misoprostol.
A doctor or nurse will advise about the timing, but a woman should take the second medication, misoprostol, no more than 48 hours after taking the first, mifepristone.
Mifepristone stops the pregnancy from developing. Misoprostol triggers the uterus to empty, which will begin 1–4 hours after taking the pill.
A woman will experience cramping and bleeding as the uterus empties, which may feel like having an unusually heavy period. Some women feel more severe cramping than others.
Within around 4–5 hours, the pregnancy tissue will likely have passed from the body, but it can take longer.

Advantages

Some advantages of a medical abortion are:
  • It does not involve surgery.
  • It is available in the first trimester.
  • It does not require an anesthetic.

Disadvantages

Some disadvantages of a medical abortion are:
  • It is not available in the second trimester.
  • Only part of the treatment takes place in a clinic.
  • It may cause painful cramping.
  • Rarely, it is not effective.
It may be a good idea to have a partner or friend close by for support while the tissue is passing.

Recovery

Recovery from a medical abortion involves:
  • some bleeding and spotting that may last for several weeks
  • a check-up with the doctor to monitor recovery

Risks

Some women experience side effects of the medications. These can include:
  • nausea
  • heavy vaginal bleeding
  • dizziness
  • fatigue
  • diarrhea
  • mild fever


Vacuum aspiration

Vacuum aspiration is a type of surgical abortion that involves using gentle suction to end a pregnancy. Doctors typically recommend this during the first trimester.

How it works

A doctor begins the vacuum aspiration procedure by inserting a speculum into the woman’s vagina. They then apply medication or use an injection to numb the area.
Next, they use thin rods called dilators to open the cervix, then insert a tube into the uterus. Then, they use either a manual or mechanic suction device to empty the uterus.

Advantages

The advantages of vacuum aspiration are:
  • It is available in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
  • It is quick, with the procedure only taking 5–10 minutes.
  • It is relatively pain-free, though some women experience cramping, sweating, nausea, or a combination.
  • It does not require a general anesthetic.

Disadvantages

The main disadvantage of vacuum aspiration is that it is not available in the second trimester.

Recovery

Recovery from vacuum aspiration involves:
  • resting for up to 1 hour after treatment
  • taking antibiotics to prevent infection
  • avoiding sex for 1 week after treatment
Also, some women experience cramping for a few days following the procedure, and irregular bleeding or spotting can occur for several weeks.

Risks

The potential complications of vacuum aspiration include bleeding and infection. However, the risk of these complications is low.
Speak to the doctor right away if signs of bleeding or new symptoms occur.

Dilation and evacuation is a type of surgical abortion that doctors commonly use during the second trimester.

How it works

A doctor may give a general anesthetic before performing a dilation and evacuation. This type of anesthetic ensures that a person does not feel anything during the procedure.
The doctor begins by inserting a speculum into the woman’s vagina. Then, they use dilators to open the cervix.
Next, they remove the pregnancy tissue with small forceps. Finally, they use suction to remove any remaining tissue.

Advantages

The advantages of dilation and evacuation are:
  • It is available in the second trimester.
  • It is a safe and effective way to end a pregnancy.

Disadvantages

The disadvantage of dilation and evacuation is that it can require a general anesthetic.

Recovery

Recovery from dilation and evacuation involves resting.
Mild pain and cramping can occur for a few days after the procedure, and there may be some bleeding for up to 2 weeks.

Risks

Potential complications of dilation and evacuation include:
  • infection
  • heavy bleeding
  • injury to the uterus
The risk of injury to the uterus or other organs during a second-trimester abortion is less than 1 in 1,000, according to The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

Labor induction abortion

Labor induction abortion is a late-term method of ending a pregnancy in the second or third trimester.
This type of abortion is rare, and a doctor may recommend it if a woman’s life is in danger.

How it works

Labor induction involves using medications to start labor, which causes the uterus to empty over a period of around 12–24 hours. A woman can take these medications by mouth or the doctor may place them into the vagina or inject them into the uterus.
Doctors usually also administer pain relief medication or a local anesthetic, as intense cramping occurs during this type of abortion.

Recovery

After the abortion is complete, a woman tends to remain in the clinic or hospital for anywhere from a few hours to 1–2 days, depending on health and other factors.
The doctor can help determine the length of the stay, and they may be able to estimate it before the abortion.

Risks

The medications that induce labor can cause side effects, such as:
  • nausea and vomiting
  • fever
  • diarrhea
Complications are rare but can include:
  • hemorrhage
  • cervical injury
  • infection
  • rupture of the uterus
  • incomplete release of the pregnancy tissue